An effective and inexpensive way of reducing venous pressure and cardiac output is by using drugs that reduce blood volume.
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These drugs diuretics act on the kidney to enhance sodium and water excretion. Reducing blood volume not only reduces central venous pressure, but even more importantly, reduces cardiac output by the Frank-Starling mechanism due to the reduction in ventricular preload.
An added benefit of these drugs is that they reduce systemic vascular resistance with long-term use. Many antihypertensive drugs have their primary action on systemic vascular resistance.
Recognizing and treating two types of long-term vasoconstriction in hypertension.
Some of these drugs produce vasodilation by interfering with sympathetic adrenergic vascular tone sympatholytics or by blocking the formation of angiotensin II or its vascular receptors. Other drugs are direct arterial dilators, and some are mixed arterial and venous dilators. Although less commonly used because of a high incidence of side effects, there are drugs that act on regions in the brain that control sympathetic autonomic outflow. One of the two mechanisms also sustains diastolic hypertension in the experimental and clinical forms of renovascular hypertension and primary aldosteronism.
Thus, both experimentally and clinically, at the polar extremes of the range of plasma renin values, one of the two mechanisms predominates: it is possible that, in the medium range of renin values, both mechanisms contribute to vasoconstriction. In our proposed unifying, analytic model, arteriolar vasoconstriction is associated with increased intracellular calcium and decreased magnesium levels in vascular smooth muscle.
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The Pharmacologic Treatment of Systemic Hypertension - Antihypertensive Drugs
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Role of natural herbs in the treatment of hypertension Tabassum N, Ahmad F - Phcog Rev
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